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Remarks by Robert Arthur Scherr

 

Before the Optimists Club
McLean, Virginia
10 July 1963

OUR ULTIMATE GOAL, AS YOU KNOW, IS THE ATTAINMENT OF A SECURE PEACE WITH JUSTICE AND FREEDOM. IF WE ARE TO REACH THIS GOAL IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT EVERY CITIZEN OF THIS GREAT COUNTRY UNDERSTAND AND CONTRIBUTE TO OUR NATIONAL DEFENSE EFFORT. IN A SENSE THIS IS A CITIZEN'S GREATEST PRIVILEGE. AT THE SAME TIME IT IS ALSO HIS GREATEST OBLIGATION. BUT TO CONTRIBUTE HE MUST UNDERSTAND THE PROBLEM.

QUITE APART FROM THE TREMENDOUS SUMS OF MONEY THAT WE ARE REQUIRED TO SPEND FOR DEFENSE, EACH OF US HAS A BIG STAKE IN THE ARMED FORCES. CIVILIZATION HAS ALWAYS RESTED ON A BASE OF ORGANIZED MILITARY STRENGTH. WHEN A NATION HAS LOST ITS WILL TO DEFEND ITSELF IT HAS CEASED TO EXIST AS A NATION -OR AT THE LEAST HAS LOST ITS GREATNESS AS A NATION. MILITARY POWER MADE POSSIBLE THE BIRTH OF THE GREAT AMERICAN SYSTEM OF FREEDOMS. MORE RECENTLY, IN TWO WORLD WARS AND IN THE KOREAN CONFLICT, MILITARY STRENGTH WAS REQUIRED TO DEFEND OUR CIVILIZATION FROM THE ONSLAUGHTS OF AGGRESSION. MOREOVER, IN ANY REALISTIC VIEW OF THE FUTURE, THE GENERAL POSSIBILITY OF WORLD CULTURAL PROGRESS HAS NO OTHER CONCEIVABLE FOUNDATION.

ONE LESSON TO BE LEARNED FROM HISTORY IS THAT THERE IS A VAST DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NOT WANTING WAR AND NOT HAVING WAR. THE AMERICAN PEOPLE DID NOT WANT WAR IN 1941. NONETHELESS WE BECAME INVOLVED IN WORLD WAR II. AFTER SEVERAL OF THE MOST TRAGIC YEARS IN THE HISTORY OF OUR COUNTRY, WE ACHIEVED A MILITARY VICTORY. HOWEVER, WE LEARNED DURING THE FIRST BITTER DAYS AND MONTHS OF THAT WAR THAT COURAGE AND HEROISM WERE NOT ENOUGH.

DURING OUR LIFETIME THERE WAS STARK, RAW COURAGE OF THE HIGHEST ORDER AT BATAAN AND WAKE ISLAND WHEN OUR FIGHTING MEN GAVE THEIR LIVES IN BATTLES THEY KNEW THEY COULD NOT WIN. NOT MANY YEARS LATER THERE WAS THE COURAGE OF DESPERATION AT PUSAN IN 1950 WHEN AMERICAN FIGHTING MEN HELD THEIR PERIMETER AGAINST THE COMMUNISTS AND GAINED PRECIOUS TIME UNTIL AMPHIBIOUS TROOPS COULD BE ASSEMBLED TO EXECUTE THE INCHON LANDING AND RELIEVE THE PRESSURE. IT IS A PARADOX OF AMERICAN HISTORY THAT, TO MANY OF OUR PEOPLE, THE MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT IS AT BEST A NECESSARY EVIL AND THAT MILITARY SERVICE IS A HARDSHIP RATHER THAN A PRIVILEGE OF CITIZENSHIP. AS A RESULT OF THIS FEELING ON THE PART OF MANY OF OUR PEOPLE IN THE PAST, THE UN17ED STATES HAS BEEN INADEQUATELY PREPARED WHENEVER WAR HAS BEEN THRUST UPON US. FORTUNATELY, TODAY THERE IS A GENERAL AWARENESS OF THE NECESSITY FOR ADEQUATE MILITARY STRENGTH. IN THE COURSE OF MY LIFETIME I HAVE KNOWN PEOPLE FROM MANY LANDS. IN THE AGGREGATE ALL PEOPLE ARE MUCH ALIKE: GENERALLY GOOD. THEY HAVE THEIR HOPES, AND THEIR LEGITIMATE ASPIRATIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT. THERE IS NO NATION OF EVIL PEOPLE. BUT THE CONTROL OF NATIONS CAN BE CAPTURED BY MEN WITH EVIL AMBITIONS. IT IS TO PROVIDE AGAINST THIS CONTINGENCY THAT WE MUST MAINTAIN MILITARY READINESS FOR THE FORESEEABLE FUTURE. IT IS APPROPRIATE FOR ALL OF US TO TAKE A SERIOUS LOOK AT OUR NATIONAL SECURITY. I AM HERE TODAY FOR THAT PURPOSE -- NOT SIMPLY AS A MARINE CORPS OFFICER BUT AS A REPRESENTATIVE OF ALL THE ARMED FORCES, THE ARMY, THE NAVY, THE COAST GUARD, AS WELL.

WE HAVE JUST CELEBRATED INDEPENDENCE DAY, IT IS MORE THAN ANOTHER DATE CIRCLED ON A CALENDAR ALREADY CROWDED WITH SPECIAL OBSERVANCES. IT IS MORE THAN BANDS PLAYING, FLAGS WAVING AND SPEECHES ABOUT THE DEMONSTRATIONS OF UNITED STATES MILITARY MIGHT. THE TRUE SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS ANNUAL CELEBRATION --AND A BASIC FACT OF BOTH OUR NATIONAL AND INDIVIDUAL AMERICAN LIVES -- IS THAT THE DEFENSIVE STRENGTH ON PARADE IS THE PRIMARY SOURCE OF OUR "POWER FOR PEACE". WERE IT NOT FOR THE ARMED FORCES OF THE UNITED STATES -- THE MEN AND WOMEN WHO SERVE THEIR COUNTRY IN THE ARMY, NAVY, AIR FORCE, MARINE CORPS, AND COAST GUARD -- WE WOULD NOT HAVE POWER TO KEEP THE PEACE. INSTEAD OF OBSERVING ANOTHER 4th OF JULY, WE COULD BE FIGHTING FOR SURVIVAL ITSELF IN A WAR FROM WHICH NO ONE WOULD EMERGE VICTORIOUS.

THE MOVING SPIRIT AND MAJOR COMPONENT OF THAT "POWER FOR PEACE" IS, OF COURSE, THE U. S. MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT. THE CAPABILITY, MISSION AND DEPLOYMENT OF THE FORCES IT COMPRISES ARE, HOWEVER, VERY DIFFERENT FROM THOSE OF OUR ARMED FORCES DURING THE INTERLUDE OF PEACE BETWEEN WORLD WARS I AND II. IN 1963, AMERICAN SOLDIERS, SAILORS, AND AIRMEN ARE NOT MERELY A STANDBY DEFENSE POTENTIAL CONCENTRATED WITHIN OUR OWN BORDERS. TODAY, THEY ARE STATIONED ON THE FRONTIERS OF FREEDOM AROUND THE GLOBE. THERE, THEY REINFORCE -- AND ARE REINFORCED BY THE FIGHTING MEN OF OVER 40 FREE NATIONS, WHO STAND GUARD AGAINST THE CONTINUING COMMUNIST PRESSURES AND PROBINGS.

THE FIRST LINE OF OUR OWN DEFENSE IS NO LONGER AT OUR BORDERS. IT IS SO FAR FLUNG THAT TO MAN IT OURSELVES WITHOUT THE AID OF OUR ALLIES WOULD INVOLVE AN IMPOSSIBLY HEAVY DRAIN ON U. S. RESOURCES AND MANPOWER WHICH WOULD HANDICAP THE NATIONAL ECONOMY AND CAUSE GRAVE HARDSHIPS IN AMERICAN FAMILY LIFE. FORTUNATELY, WE DO NOT HAVE TO DO THE JOB ALONE. WE HAVE

STRONG, DEDICATED, AND TRUSTWORTHY PARTNERS WHO SHARE WITH US THE RESPONSIBILITIES AND COSTS OF MAINTAINING A FREE WORLD MILITARY POSTURE COMMENSURATE IN STRENGTH WITH ITS MISSION -- THAT OF DETERRING AGGRESSION AND PROVIDING THAT COMMON DEFENSE WHICH IS THE ONLY RELIABLE DEFENSE IN TODAY'S GLOBAL STRUGGLE. OUR CONTINUING NEED FOR MILITARY READINESS MEANS TWO THINGS:

SECOND, WE MUST BE CAPABLE OF DEALING WITH SMALL WARS AND THREATS TO THE PEACE BEFORE THEY CAN GROW INTO BIG ONES. TO MEET THIS REQUIREMENT, THE FORCES EMPLOYED MUST BE MARKED BY SPEED, MOBILITY, AND READINESS.

THE DEFENSE SYSTEM JUST DESCRIBED IS A POWER FOR PEACE. WE CAN BE SURE THAT THE LEADERS OF OUR POTENTIAL ENEMIES FULLY UNDERSTAND THE CONSEQUENCES OF A GENERAL NUCLEAR WAR. AS LONG AS THEY KNOW WE ARE PREPARED TO RETALIATE WITH NUCLEAR WEAPONS IN SUFFICIENT STRENGTH TO DEVASTATE THEM, THERE IS LITTLE LIKELIHOOD THAT THEY WILL LAUNCH DELIBERATELY A GENERAL WAR.

BESIDES PROTECTING OUR NATION FROM THE RAVAGES OF ANOTHER WAR, WE CAN DO MUCH TO STABILIZE WORLD CONDITIONS RESULTING FROM THE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC DISLOCATIONS CAUSED BY ARMED CONFLICT, BY PREVENTING IT.

IN YOUR REQUESTING AN OFFICER OF THE MARINE CORPS FOR YOUR SPEAKER YOU HAVE INDICATED, I TRUST A PREFERRED INTEREST IN LEARNING MORE ABOUT THE MARINE CORPS AND A DESIRE TO BECOME BETTER ACQUAINTED WITH ITS PLACE IN OUR ORGANIZATION FOR NATIONAL DEFENSE. CONSEQUENTLY, WHAT I HAVE TO SAY WILL
EMPHASIZE THE ROLE OF THE MARINE CORPS.

OF COURSE, EACH OF OUR ARMED FORCES HAS AN INDISPENSABLE CONTRIBUTION TO MAKE TO OUR NATION'S POWER FOR PEACE. NO SINGLE SERVICE CAN PERFORM SUCCESSFULLY WITHOUT THE HELP OF THE OTHERS. WITH THE EMERGENCE OF STRAC (THE STRATEGIC ARMY CORPS) THERE WERE THOSE WHO THOUGHT THAT THE MARINE CORPS SHOULD BE CONCERNED BY THE COMPETITION OF A SECOND NATIONAL "FORCE IN READINESS." WHEN GENERAL SHOUP BECAME COMMANDANT HE SET THE RECORD STRAIGHT IN A POLICY STATEMENT WHICH WAS QUOTED WIDELY IN THE PRESS. IN IT HE SAID: "SINCE MY RETURN FROM OKINAWA AND MY ARRIVAL IN WASHINGTON ONE OF THE MOST HEARTENING THINGS I HAVE LEARNED IS THAT ALL SERVICES INTEND TO MAINTAIN SOME FORCES READY TO FIGHT NOW! THIS IS GOOD FOR THE UNITED STATES. LET'S ENCOURAGE IT. THERE WILL NEVER BE ENOUGH READY FORCES TO DEAL WITH ALL THE LITTLE BRUSH FIRES AND MAINTAIN THE DEGREE OF READINESS NECESSARY TO MEET THE BIG CONFLAGRATION WHICH WE HOPE WILL NEVER HAPPEN." GENERAL SHOUP IS NOT ALONE IN THESE THOUGHTS. THE CHIEFS OF EACH OF THE SERVICES HAS EXPRESSED HIMSELF IN THE SAME MANNER. A TYPICAL CONSENT HAS BEEN MADE BY GENERAL LYMAN L. LEMNITZER AS CHIEF OF STAFF OF THE ARMY. HE HAS STATED "MODERN MILITARY OPERATIONS ARE NOT RESTRICTED TO ANY PARTICULAR ELEMENT. THE ARMY MUST FIGHT AS PART OF A TEAM WHICH INCLUDES FORCES OF THE OTHER U. S. ARMED FORCES -- AND THOSE OF OUR ALLIES. WE ARE ALL WELL AWARE THAT LAND WARFARE IS NOT CONDUCTED SOLELY ON THE SURFACE OF THE LAND. IT INCLUDES THE CONDUCT OF OPERATIONS IN THE AIR ABOVE THE LAND AND THE WATERS CONTIGUOUS THERE TO."

WE HEAR TOO MUCH ABOUT THE BAD EFFECTS OF INTER-SERVICE RIVALRY. AMERICANS ARE GREAT SPORTSMEN, AND COMPETITION IS IN OUR VERY BLOOD. IT IS OUR NATURE TO TRY TO EXCELL. SHOW ME AN UNCOMPETITIVE MAN OR ORGANIZATION AND YOU WILL SHOW ME AN UNPROGRESSIVE MAN -- A STAGNANT ORGANIZATION. THOSE WHO WOULD BAN INTER-SERVICE RIVALRY (SOME CALL IT BICKERING) AS UNHEALTHY WOULD DENY US THE BENEFITS OF COMPETITION WHICH HAS BEEN RESPONSIBLE FOR SO MANY OF THE ADVANCES IN OUR CIVILIZATION. MOST INTER-SERVICE RIVALRY IS NORMAL AND HEALTHY. EACH SERVICE BY STRIVING TO EXCELL IN ITS OWN FIELD, PROGRESSES TO NEW AND HIGHER LEVELS OF EFFECTIVENESS, AND IN THIS WE ARE ALL THE WINNERS.

IN ITS FIELD WE DEPEND ON THE AIR FORCE TO BEAR THE MAJOR RESPONSIBILITY IN OUR MEANS FOR DETERRING GENERAL WAR. THE STRATEGIC AIR COMMAND IS BY FAR THE STRONGEST LONG RANGE ATOMIC STRIKER FORCE IN EXISTENCE. OUR RETALIATORY POWER WILL BE FURTHER ENHANCED DURING THE NEXT YEAR BY ADDITIONS TO THE LONG RANGE MISSILE DETERRENT FORCE. OUR HOME AIR DEFENSE RESTS WITH THE CONTINENTAL AIR DEFENSE COMMAND. NAVY AND MARINE CORPS FORCES PARTICIPATE TO THE LIMIT OF THE MEANS AT HAND UNDER AIR FORCE DIRECTION AND CONTROL. WITH INCREASED MOBILITY AND STRIKING POWER TACTICAL WINGS OF THE AIR FORCE STAND READY TO EXERT TACTICAL AIR POWER ON SHORT NOTICE IN SUPPORT OF OUR OWN OR ALLIED FORCES OVERSEAS.

OUR SPLENDID ARMY HAS DIVISIONS DEPLOYED IN CRITICAL OVERSEAS AREAS, SOME IN CLOSE CONTACT WITH COMMUNIST FORCES. THESE FORCES SUSTAIN AND SUPPORT OUR ALLIES IN FURTHERANCE OF NATIONAL POLICY. AT THE SAME TIME THE STRATEGIC ARMY COMMAND DIVISIONS, BASED IN THE UNITED STATES, ARE PREPARED FOR RAPID DEPLOYMENT TO MEET CONTINGENCIES WHEREVER THEY MAY OCCUR. OUR ARMY HAS PIONEERED TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES IN WEAPONS AND TECHNIQUES, WHILE AT THE SAME TIME STANDING READY TO SERVE AS A MOBILIZATION BASE FOR THE LARGE GROUND FORCES WE WOULD NEED IN THE EVENT OF GENERAL WAR.

IT IS SOMETIMES FORGOTTEN THAT THE UNITED STATES COAST GUARD IS AN ARMED FORCE WITH A HISTORY DATING BACK TO 1790. IT IS OUR COUNTRY'S FOREMOST AGENCY FOR THE PROTECTION OF LIFE AND PROPERTY AT SEA. IN TIME OF WAR, OUR COAST GUARD BECOMES -FOR ALL PRACTICAL PURPOSES -- A PART OF THE NAVY. ALMOST 2,000 COAST GUARDSMEN DIED IN WORLD WAR II, AND MOST OF THESE WERE FAR FROM OUR OWN COAST WHEN THEY LOST THEIR LIVES. THE COAST GUARD IS A SMALL SERVICE, BUT IT HAS EARNED THE RESPECT AND APPRECIATION OF THE NATION.

TIME AND SCIENCE MAY HAVE SHRUNK THE OCEANS, BUT THE OCEANS ARE STILL THERE. THE SYSTEM OF COLLECTIVE SECURITY TO WHICH WE BELONG IS IN EFFECT AN OCEANIC CONFEDERATION, ENCOMPASSING AS IT DOES FIVE OCEANS. BY ITSELF THIS COUNTRY IS PREDOMINANTLY A MARITIME POWER. WHAT DOES THIS MEAN: IT MEANS THAT IN TIME OF WAR WE MUST BE ABLE TO USE -- AND TO CONTROL -- THE SEAS.

OUR NAVY IS READY TO DO THIS JOB NOW AND IS PREPARING TO DO IT BETTER IN THE FUTURE. THE NUCLEAR POWERED POLARIS MISSILE, SUBMARINES ARE A POTENT ADDITION TO OUR NATIONAL DETERRENT POWER.

THE BALANCED FLEET CONCEPT, BY WHICH THE NAVAL COMMANDER IS GIVEN ALL THE TOOLS HE NEEDS TO ACCOMPLISH HIS ASSIGNED TASK, IS BASIC TO THE NAVY'S PHILOSOPHY. THE FLEET COMMANDER CAN CALL ON SUCH ELEMENTS AS SUBMARINE AND ANTI-SUBMARINE FORCES, FAST CARRIER ATTACK FORCES, AND AMPHIBIOUS ATTACK FORCES. SUPPORTED BY THE NAVY'S SEA BORNE MOBILE LOGISTIC SUPPORT FORCES TO GIVE ADDED STAYING POWER AND MOBILITY, THE FLEET CAN ROAM THE VAST OCEAN AREAS. THE BALANCED FLEET POSSESSES THE UNIQUE ABILITY TO APPLY THE PRECISE DEGREES AND TYPES OF FORCES THAT ARE NEEDED -- AT A TIME AND PLACE OF ITS CHOOSING, AND GENERALLY WITH THE ADVANTAGE OF STRATEGIC SURPRISE.

POTENTIALLY, OUR NAVY REPRESENTS SEA POWER IN ITS HIGHEST FORM -- A FORM NO OTHER NATION CAN EXPECT TO APPROACH. IT RANGES FROM DEVASTATING ATTACK BY SUBMARINE LAUNCHED MISSILES, AND AIRCRAFT OF THE CARRIER ATTACK FORCES TO THE MERE SHOWING OF THE FLAG IN THREATENED AREAS -- OR TO AMPHIBIOUS LANDINGS TO REPEL AGGRESSIONS OR TO ASSIST A FRIENDLY GOVERNMENT IN MAINTAINING ITS STABILITY AGAINST SUBVERSIVE ELEMENTS

THE AMPHIBIOUS FORCES OF THE NAVY INCLUDE THE MARINE CORPS. SINCE 1775 THIS NATION HAS POSSESSED, IN THE MARINE CORPS, A HIGHLY TRAINED AMPHIBIOUS FORCE-IN-READINESS.

THE MARINE CORPS ENJOYS THE STATUS OF AN INDEPENDENT SERVICE, ALONG WITH THE ARMY, NAVY, AND AIR FORCE, BUT WE ARE CLOSELY INTEGRATED WITH THE NAVY. WE SHARE COMMON INTERESTS, COMMON OBJECTIVES, AND THE SAME SECRETARY. ALTHOUGH A SEPARATE SERVICE WITHIN THE DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY OUR FLEET MARINE FORCES ARE ASSIGNED TO THE FLEET COMMANDERS AS PART OF THE BALANCED FLEET. THE MISSIONS OF THE MARINE CORPS ARE SET FORTH IN THE NATIONAL SECURITY ACT OF 1957, AS AMENDED.

THE PRIMARY ONE IS THAT THE MARINE CORPS WILL PROVIDE FLEET MARINE FORCES OF COMBINED ARMS, TOGETHER WITH SUPPORTING AIR COMPONENTS, FOR SERVICE WITH THE FLEET IN THE SEIZURE OR DEFENSE OF ADVANCED NAVAL BASES AND FOR THE CONDUCT OF SUCH LAND OPERATIONS AS MAY BE ESSENTIAL TO THE PROSECUTION OF A NAVAL CAMPAIGN.

THE SECOND IS THE LOGICAL COUNTERPART OF THE FIRST B TO DEVELOP THE LANDING FORCE TACTICS, TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT REQUIRED FOR THE LANDING FORCE IN AMPHIBIOUS OPERATIONS.

THE THIRD IS ONE WHICH THE LAW DESCRIBES IN MUCH MORE GENERAL TERMS -- THE MARINE CORPS WILL PERFORM SUCH OTHER DUTIES AS THE PRESIDENT MAY DIRECT.

THEREFORE, TOGETHER WITH THE NAVY'S AMPHIBIOUS FORCES WE REPRESENT THE ABILITY OF THE FLEET TO PROJECT NAVAL POWER ASHORE FOR THE SEIZURE OF ADVANCE BASES -- OR TO ESTABLISH A BEACHHEAD IN PREPARATION FOR A LARGER INVASION. WHEN WE EMBARK ON AN OPERATION THE NAVAL COMMANDER OF THE AMPHIBIOUS TASK FORCE IS CHARGED WITH THE SUCCESSFUL ESTABLISHMENT OF THE MARINES ASHORE. AT THAT TIME HE RELINQUISHES COMMAND TO THE MARINE EXPEDITIONARY FORCE COMMANDER WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE SUCCESSFUL PROSECUTION OF THE LAND CAMPAIGN.

OUR FLEET MARINE FORCES ARE ALSO BALANCED FORCES, COMBINING IN THEMSELVES ALL OF THE ELEMENTS ESSENTIAL TO THE PROSECUTION OF LAND CAMPAIGNS, ALL RESPONSIVE TO THE WILL OF ONE COMMANDER. AS CURRENTLY MAINTAINED, THESE FLEET MARINE FORCES CONSIST OF THREE MARINE DIVISIONS AND THREE MARINE AIRCRAFT WINGS, TOGETHER WITH SUPPORTING FORCES, BOTH COMBAT AND LOGISTIC.

THE AMPHIBIOUS DOCTRINE WE DEVELOPED IN THE TWENTIES AND THIRTIES WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR OUR SUCCESSFUL U. S. AMPHIBIOUS ASSAULTS IN WORLD WAR II.

THE JUNGLE WARFARE TECHNIQUES WE DEVELOPED IN THE TWENTIES IN LATIN AMERICA WERE PUT TO GOOD USE AGAINST THE JAPANESE IN THE SOUTH PACIFIC.

THE DIVE BOMBING TECHNIQUES WE DEVELOPED IN THE TWENTIES AND THIRTIES WERE INVALUABLE IN WORLD WAR II AND IN KOREA.

SINCE WORLD WAR II WE HAVE DEVELOPED A NEW DOCTRINE ... WE CALL IT "VERTICAL ASSAULT". IT IS DESIGNED TO WORK EQUALLY WELL AGAINST SMALL FIRES OR LARGE CONFLAGRATIONS, IN NUCLEAR WARFARE AND IN CONVENTIONAL WARFARE.

"VERTICAL ASSAULT" IS DESIGNED TO EXPLOIT THE SPEED AND FLEXIBILITY OF THE HELICOPTER, TO PROJECT OUR SEA POWER DEEP ASHORE WITHOUT HAVING TO MAKE A DIRECT ASSAULT ON THE USUALLY HEAVILY DEFENDED SHORE LINE. BASICALLY, THIS IS THE CONCEPT ON WHICH OUR NEW DOCTRINE IS FOUNDED..HERE IS WHAT WE ARE DOING TO DEVELOP IT....AND OUR PLANS FOR IMPROVING IT.

1. TACTICAL MOBILITY: BY REORGANIZING OUR TROOPS AND EQUIPMENT, WE HAVE IMPROVED OUR TACTICAL MOBILITY. THE TROOPS AND EQUIPMENT REQUIRED FOR THE ASSAULT CAN NOW BE LIFTED IN HELICOPTERS INSTEAD OF BOATS OR AMPHIBIAN TRACTORS.

2. RAPID ASSAULT: BY CARRYING THE ENTIRE ASSAULT FORCE IN SHIPS DESIGNED FOR RAPID UNLOADING BY HELICOPTER WE CAN RAPIDLY CLOSE ON OUR OBJECTIVES. THE NAVY HAS DESIGNED FOR US A TROOP SHIP CALLED A HELICOPTER AMPHIBIOUS ASSAULT SHIP. THE SHIP HAS THE SPEED TO KEEP UP WITH THE CARRIER TASK FORCE AND BENEFIT FROM THE PROTECTION IT PROVIDES.

3. ISOLATION OF THE OBJECTIVE: BY UTILIZING LONG RANGE AIRCRAFT OPERATING FROM CARRIERS AS MUCH AS 1500 MILES AT SEA, WE CAN EFFECT THE SUDDEN AND CONCENTRATED DESTRUCTION OF ENEMY AIR AND GROUND FORCES, THUS ISOLATING THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES OF OUR MISSION.

4. UNRESTRICTED MOVEMENT: BY TRANSPORTING OUR ASSAULT FORCES FROM SHIP TO SHORE BY HELICOPTER WE CAN SEIZE WIDELY DISPERSED OBJECTIVES AS DEEP AS 100 MILES FROM OUR LAUNCHING SHIPS AND ALONG A FRONTAGE OF 50 MILES. WE DO NOT HAVE TO FIGHT OVER GROUND TO THESE OBJECTIVES. WE CAN APPROACH FROM ANY DIRECTION. WE ELIMINATE THE NEED FOR BEACH EXITS, ROADS AND BRIDGES.

5. UNEXPECTED EXPLOITATION: BY EXPLOITING THE SPEED AND VERSATILITY OF THE HELICOPTER WE CAN DEVELOP TACTICAL OPPORTUNITIES AFTER THE ORIGINAL LANDING. WE CAN BY-PASS THE ENEMY'S STRENGTH AND ATTACK HIS FLANKS AND REPOL..AND WE CAN USE THE HELICOPTERS TO SPEED UP NEEDED SUPPLIES.

6. ALL-WEATHER AIR SUPPORT: ... OPERATING FROM CARRIERS AT SEA OUR ALL-WEATHER AIR SUPPORT CAN BE UTILIZED FOR CONTINUED ISOLATION OF THE OBJECTIVE AREA, FOR RECONNAISSANCE ... AND TO FURNISH FIRE SUPPORT. AS SOON AS POSSIBLE, LANDING FORCE AIRCRAFT WILL MOVE ASHORE. VERTICAL TAKEOFF AND LANDING AIRCRAFT, OR PORTABLE CATAPULTS AND ARRESTING GEAR WILL BE EMPLOYED IN ORDER TO OPERATE FROM HASTILY PREPARED AIRSTRIPS.

7. TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT: BOTH LAND AND SEAPLANE TYPE TO PROVIDE ADDITIONAL REINFORCEMENTS AND SUPPLIES FOR THE LANDING FORCE IS THE LAST FEATURE. IT USED TO BE THAT WE PLANNED TO HAVE READY IN AN OBJECTIVE AREA AHEAD OF TIME WHAT THE TROOPS MIGHT NEED. NOW WE PLAN TO DELIVER IT AS NEEDED.

THESE FORCES WILL PLAY IMPORTANT ROLES IN ANY FUTURE WARE -ALL-OUT OR LIMITED. HOWEVER, THEIR HIGH STATE OF READINESS, THEIR WILLINGNESS TO FIGHT, THE FLEXIBILITY OF THEIR AIR GROUND ORGANIZATION, AND THEIR RELATIONS TO THE BALANCED FLEET ARE FACTORS THAT MAKE THEM IDEALLY SUITED TO MEET THE DEMANDS OF LIMITED WARS.

THIS IS A NUCLEAR AGE, LIKE IT OR NOT, AND MARINES WILL NEVER AGAIN MAKE THE SAME KIND OF ASSAULT LANDINGS THEY MADE AT GUADALCANAL, SAIPAN, IWO JIMA, OR INCHON WITH CONCENTRATIONS OF FORCE AGAINST HEAVILY DEFENDED BEACHES. TRUE, FOLLOW UP TROOPS AND SUPPLIES AND HEAVY EQUIPMENT WILL LAND OVER THE BEACH, BUT WE VISUALIZE THAT ACTUAL COMBAT OPERATIONS WILL BE INITIATED USING THE VERTICAL ASSAULT.

THE POSSIBLE USE OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS PRECLUDES THE LARGE CONCENTRATIONS OF VULNERABLE SHIPPING WHICH CHARACTERIZED THE AMPHIBIOUS OPERATIONS OF  WAR II AND KOREA, AND FORCES US INTO THINKING IN NEW MAGNITUDES OF MOBILITY AND DISPERSIONS IN ORDER TO AVOID THE POSSIBILITY OF UNACCEPTABLE LOSSES.

THE ASSAULT LANDINGS OF THE FUTURE WILL BE MADE BY MARINES IN ASSAULT HELICOPTERS, TAKING OFF FROM FAST, WIDELY DISPERSED SHIPS UNDER THE COVER OF SUPPORTING FIRES DELIVERED BY PLANES, GUNS, AND MISSILES. WE CAN LAND AT UNDEFENDED POINTS OF OUR OWN CHOOSING AND TAKE THE HEAVY DEFENSES FROM THE FLANK AND REAR. THE PRACTICE OF DISPERSION WITH MOBILITY IS AS ESSENTIAL ON LAND AS AT SEA. THE CONTINUED USE OF THE ASSAULT HELICOPTER ENABLES US TO MAINTAIN OUR MOMENTUM IN THE ASSAULT OR TO MOVE QUICKLY TO COUNTER ENEMY ACTION. IN FURTHERANCE OF THIS CONCEPT ALL OF OUR EQUIPMENT AND SUPPORTING WEAPONS THAT ARE ESSENTIAL TO THE ASSAULT ARE DESIGNED AS TO SIZE AND WEIGHT TO PERMIT THEIR MOVEMENT BY HELICOPTER. TO ENSURE QUICK AND RESPONSIVE AIR SUPPORT ASHORE, MARINE AVlAT10N HAS DEVELOPED EQUIPMENT FOR ESTABLISHING SHORT EXPEDITIONARY AIRFIELDS IN THE LANDING AREA WITHIN A MATTER OF TWO OR THREE DAYS. UTILIZING SOLID ALUMINUM PLANKING FOR RUNWAY, ARRESTING GEAR FOR LANDING, AND JATO FOR TAKE OFF WE CAN OPERATE OUR FASTEST JET ATTACK AND FIGHTER AIRCRAFT FROM FIELDS LESS THAN 3500 FEET IN LENGTH.

BUT THE MOST IMPORTANT FACT TO REMEMBER ABOUT THE MARINES IS NOT NEW AT ALL -- IT IS THE FACT THAT YOUR MARINES ARE READY TO FIGHT RIGHT NOW.

GENERAL SHOUP SUMMED IT UP WHEN HE SAID, "WE MARINES ARE PROUD OF OUR MEMBERSHIP ON THE NATIONAL DEFENSE TEAM, AND WE ARE DEDICATED TO OUR ROLE AS THE NATION'S AMPHIBIOUS FORCE-IN-READINESS -- THE ROLE OF MARINES SINCE THE CORPS WAS FOUNDED IN 1775.

THE MARINES HAVE ALWAYS BEEN ASSOCIATED WITH WILLINGNESS AS WELL AS READINESS TO FIGHT. OUR MARINE CORPS EXISTS FOR BUT ONE PURPOSE -- TO FIGHT FOR OUR 00UNTRY. HOWEVER, WE REALIZE AND ARE GRATEFUL THAT OUR READINESS AND WILLINGNESS TO FIGHT ARE NOT REQUIRED FOR ANY AGGRESSIVE PURPOSE, BUT FOR THE PRESERVATION OF OUR NATION AS A POWER FOR PEACE."

A GRAPHIC ILLUSTRATION OF THE IMMEDIATE CAPABILITIES OF YOUR ARMED FORCES WAS THE RECENT CUBA CRISIS.

THE CITIZENS OF THIS COUNTRY CAN TAKE PRIDE AND CONFIDENCE FROM THE RAPIDITY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF THE ROLES PLAYED BY OUR ARMED FORCES OCTOBER 1962. THE TOTAL EFFECTIVENESS OF THIS COMBINED EFFORT CAN BE DIRECTLY ATTRIBUTED TO THE READINESS OF EACH SERVICE TO FULFILL ITS ASSIGNED MISSION DURING THE CRISIS -- A READINESS ATTAINED AS A RESULT OF STRENUOUS AND CONTINUOUS MILITARY TRAINING. NOTHING OF THIS SORT WOULD HAVE BEEN POSSIBLE IF OUR MEN HAD BEEN, AS IN THE OLD DAYS, UNTRAINED AND UNORGANIZED - UNPREPARED.

INCLUDED IN FORCES THAT QUICKLY RESPONDED TO THE CRISIS WERE MORE THAN 100,000 SOLDIERS1 85,000 SAILORS IN 183 SHIPS ON A 2100-MILE FRONT, AND THOUSANDS OF AIRMEN WHO FLEW SOME 80,000 HOURS.

IN FULFILLING OUR PART IN THE CUBAN AFFAIR, THE MARINE CORPS FOUND AGAIN THAT OUR EMPHASIS ON READINESS AND FLEXIBILITY PAID HANDSOME DIVIDENDS. LET ME CITE A FEW OF THE EVENTS THAT TOOK PLACE WHICH SERVE TO ILLUSTRATE THE VALUE OF TRAINING AND PREPAREDNESS.

ON 22 OCTOBER -- THE DAY THAT PRESIDENT KENNEDY SPOKE TO THE NATION ON RADIO AND TELEVISION -- A MARINE BATTALION LANDING TEAM WAS AIRLIFTED TO THE GUANTANAMO NAVAL BASE FROM CAMP PENDLETON, CALIFORNIA, THE HOME OF THE 1ST MARINE DIVISION. THE BLT WAS READY TO MOVE JUST FIVE HOURS AFTER RECEIVING THE ORDER TO DEPLOY. THE RAPIDITY WITH WHICH THE MOVE WAS MADE ASTOUNDED MANY EXPERIENCED MARINES, OLD HANDS AT DEPLOYING ON SHORT NOTICE. ON THE SAME DAY, A BATTALION OF THE 2D MARINE DIVISION WAS FLOWN FROM ITS EAST COAST BASE AT CAMP LEJEUNE, NC TO ASSIST IN THE REINFORCING OF THE GUANTANAMO BASE.

AND THE READY MARINE BATTALION ASSIGNED TO THE SECOND FLEET FROM THE 2D MARINE DIVISION, WHICH IS KEPT ON STATION IN THE CARIBBEAN, LANDED OVER THE BEACHES AT GUANTANAMO.

ADDITIONAL MARINE UNITS ON BOTH THE EAST AND WEST COASTS, WITH THEIR HELICOPTERS EMBARKED IN AMPHIBIOUS SHIPS OF THE NAVY AND STEAMED TO THE TROUBLED WATERS OF THE CARIBBEAN. THE WEST COAST UNIT TRANSITED THE PANAMA CANAL FROM WEST TO EAST. MEANWHILE, MARINE FIGHTER AND ATTACK AIR SQUADRONS MOVED QUICKLY FROM HOME BASES TO THE DECKS OF FLEET CARRIERS OR AIR BASES LOCATED IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES OR THE CARIBBEAN, HERE THEY ENGAGED IN FLYING RECONNAISSANCE AND SECURITY MISSIONS WHILE WAITING THE CALL FOR STRONGER ACTION.

ALTOGETHER, THERE WERE APPROXIMATELY 45,000 MARINES POISED FOR IMMEDIATE EMPLOYMENT DURING THE CUBAN CRISIS. THIS IS MORE THAN PARTICIPATED IN THE BLOODY ASSAULT ON TARAWA OR THE LANDINGS AT INCHON DURING THE KOREAN WAR.

THIS AIR/GROUND TEAM WAS TRAINED AND READY. THE SEEMINGLY ENDLESS EXERCISES ACROSS THE BEACHES AT CAMP LEJEUNE AND CAMP PENDLETON, THE DEPLOYMENTS FOR TRAINING OF ELEMENTS OF THE 2D MARINE DIVISION -- TOGETHER WITH THEIR AVIATION COUNTERPARTS FROM THE 2D MARINE AIRCRAFT WING -- TO THE ISLAND OF VIEQUES, AND TRAINING WITH OUR NAVAL AMPHIBIOUS STRIKING FORCES PAID OFF. THE WELL-COORDINATED AND REHEARSED CONTINGENCY PLANS WERE AND HAD BEEN ALL SET TO GO. THERE WAS NO CONFUSION B NO SCRAMBLING NO SCURRYING. ONLY A FEW WORDS WERE NECESSARY -- "MOVE OUT" "PROCEED TO THE PORT OF EMBARKATION" -- "EMBARK IN AMPHIBIOUS SHIPPING." EVERY MARINE WAS FULLY TRAINED AND READY FOR COMBAT - WITH MONTHS AND YEARS OF TRAINING BEHIND HIM. HIS MORALE WAS HIGH - HE WAS EAGER TO CARRY OUT THE ORDERS OF OUR PRESIDENT.

WE ARE ABSOLU71ELY CONFIDENT THAT OUR MARINE EXPEDITIONARY FORCE WOULD HAVE BEEN ABLE TO PERFORM SUPERBLY IN COMBAT IN CUBA, HAD IT BEEN NECESSARY. WE ARE SURE BECAUSE A OF A FEW MARINE A TRADE SECRETS, SECRETS WHICH I WANT TO DISCUSS BRIEFLY WITH YOU NOW:-

THE IMPORTANCE OF THE INDIVIDUAL MARINE

WE BELIEVE THAT BATTLES ARE WON BY INDIVIDUAL MARINES WORKING TOGETHER AS A TEAM AND USING WEAPONS AND MACHINES -RATHER THAN BY WEAPONS AND MACHINES USING MARINES. WE ARE ABSOLUTELY CONVINCED THAT BATTLES ARE STILL WON BY HUMAN BRAINS, MUSCLES, AND GUTS. THAT IS WHY WE ARE SO CAREFUL IN SELECTING OUR MEN. ALL MARINES, AS YOU KNOW, ARE VOLUNTEERS -- AND OF THOSE WHO VOLUNTEER, WE SELECT ONLY ONE OUT OF FOUR.

WE ATTACH THE GREATEST IMPORTANCE TO RECRUIT TRAINING -- BOOT TRAINING, AS IT IS COMMONLY KNOWN. TWELVE WEEKS OF CONCENTRATED NIGHT-AND-DAY EFFORT IS REQUIRED TO SHAPE EACH 18-YEAR-OLD BOY INTO A MAN -- A MARINE -- WHO CAN SHOOT A RIFLE STRAIGHT AND CARRY OUT ORDERS INSTANTLY AND WILLINGLY.

THE PRODUCT THAT EMERGES FROM OUR RECRUIT DEPOTS IN 90 DAYS IS A CHANGED PERSON. THE KID IS GONE. HE HAS MATURED -HE IS A MAN LOYAL TO THIS COUNTRY -- AND I CONFESS THAT SOMETIMES WE HAVE TO DIG DEEP TO AWAKEN THIS LOYALTY IN SOME OF THE BOYS WHO COME TO US. HE IS A MAN WHO HAS DISCOVERED THE STRENGTH OF RELIGION -- A MAN WHO CAN ENDURE HARDSHIP, TAKE CARE OF HIMSELF AND HIS BUDDIES, AND WHO HAS THE WILL TO FIGHT.

AFTER 12 WEEKS OF RUGGED, UNCOMPROMISING BOOT TRAINING, THE INDIVIDUAL MARINE GOES TO AN INFANTRY TRAINING REGIMENT, WHERE HE LEARNS TO WORK IN SMALL GROUPS OF FOUR CALLED FIRE TEAMS. IT IS IN THESE 4-MEN FIRE TEAMS THAT THE INDIVIDUAL MARINE LEARNS TO BE A LEADER. FOR AMERICAN BOYS IT IS A NATURAL SEQUEL TO THEIR PARTICIPATION IN BASEBALL, FOOTBALL AND OTHER ATHLETIC TEAMS.

EVERY AMERICAN BOY WANTS TO BE A LEADER. FURTHERMORE, HE LIKES TO PLAY ON A TEAM. WE EXPLOIT THESE DESIRES. THROUGHOUT HIS 16 WEEKS OF TRAINING, THE RECRUIT IS MADE TO FEEL THAT HE IS AN IMPORTANT MEMBER OF THE 4-MAN FIRE TEAM. THIS GROUP HAS THE SAME BASIC APPEAL TO A BOY AS DOES A BASKETBALL

TEAM. ALL MEMBERS OF THIS TEAM ARE BUDDIES, AND EACH MAN IS GIVEN THE OPPORTUNITY TO BE A LEADER OF HIS TEAM. ATTITUDES OF PATRIOTISM, LOYALTY, COURAGE, AND EFFICIENCY ARE DEVELOPED WITHIN THE FOCUS OF THIS SMALL GROUP. IT IS HERE THAT COMBAT LEADERS ARE MADE.

WE HAVE INCREASED OUR EMPHASIS ON TEACHING LOYALTY, PATRIOTISM, INSTANT OBEDIENCY TO ORDERS, SELF-DISCIPLINE, THE STRENGTH OF RELIGIOUS BELIEFS, THE IMPORTANCE OF COMPLETE AND THOROUGH KNOWLEDGE OF WEAPONS, AND THE ABILITY TO TAKE CARE OF ONESELF AND OTHERS.

AS A RESULT OF MY PERSONAL EXPERIENCE, I AM CONVINCED THAT THE MARINE OF TODAY --THE ONE BOY OUT OF FOUR -- IS JUST AS GOOD AS, AND IN SOME WAYS BETTER THAN, HIS FATHER OR GRANDFATHER, AND HE IS JUST AS READY AND CAPABLE OF FIGHTING FOR HIS COUNTRY AS WAS THE MARINE OF 1775 AND 1942. IT IS PRIMARILY A MATTER OF TRAINING, OF SELF-RESPECT AND SELF-CONFIDENCE QUALITY CONTROL -- QUALITY ASSURANCE.

THE MEN WHO LEAVE THE TRAINING DEPOTS OF THE MARINE CORPS AND OF THE ARMY, NAVY AND AIR FORCE -- ARE WELL TRAINED, DEDICATED AND MOTIVATED INDIVIDUALS. THEY ARE TRULY WORTHY IN EVERY RESPECT TO CARRY ON THE TRADITIONS OF TWO CENTURIES AS PATRIOTIC AMERICAN CITIZENS AND AS FIGHTING MEN.

AS I HAVE STATED IN NO SERVICE ARE MEN MORE IMPORTANT. THIS MEANS THAT STR0NG DISCIPLINE CONTINUES TO BE MOST IMPORTANT.

THIS IS A POINT ON WHICH THERE IS SOMETIMES SOME MISUNDERSTANDING. WHEN MARINES SPEAK OF DISCIPLINE, WE SPEAK OF THE SPIRIT OF THE TEAM. WHEN THE AVERAGE CIVILIAN HEARS THE WORD, HE IS APT TO THINK OF FEAR AND PUNISHMENT AND CHASTISEMENT. ACTUALLY, THESE THINGS ARE NOT A PART OF TRUE MILITARY DISCIPLINE.

THE DISCIPLINE UPON WHICH A MARINE UNIT MUST BE BUILT IS NOT BASED ON FEAR OF AUTHORITY. IT IS A DISCIPLINE THAT ENDURES WHEN EVERY SEMBLANCE OF AUTHORITY HAS VANISHED, WHEN THE LEADER HAS FALLEN, WHEN THE MEMBERS OF THE TEAM ARE DROPPING OUT ONE BY ONE. WHEN THE ONLY DRIVING POWER THAT REMAINS IS THE STRONG AND UNCONQUERABLE SPIRIT OF THE TEAM. THAT IS THE WORKING DEFINITION OF DISCIPLINE. WE DO NOT DEFINE DISCIPLINE AS A BLIND OBEDIENCE TO SOME ORDERS. RATHER WE DEFINE IT AS THE CHEERFUL AND WILLING OBEDIENCE TO ALL ORDERS. OBVIOUSLY, DISCIPLINE OF THIS TYPE REQUIRES A HEALTHY, WHOLESOME, AND REVERENT RESPECT FOR THE PERSON GIVING THE ORDERS. IT IS THIS TYPE OF DISCIPLINE WE SEEK TO INSTILL IN AND EVOKE FROM EVERY MARINE.

THESE ARE OUR ARMED FORCES, BRIEFLY DESCRIBED. EACH HAS ITS SEPARATE CHARACTER, ITS OWN CUSTOMS, ITS OWN TRADITIONS, AND MAKES ITS OWN CONTRIBUTION TO OUR MILITARY STRENGTH.

THE CONTINUING REQUIREMENT OF THE ARMED FORCES IS FOR DEDICATED PATRIOTIC YOUNG PEOPLE TO SERVE IN THEM. ZEAL TO SERVE IN A MILITARY UNIT STEMS FROM MANY SOURCES, NOT THE LEAST OF WHICH IS PATRIOTISM. SELFLESS SERVICE -- A DEEP SENSE OF DUTY -IS REQUIRED OF OUR YOUNG PEOPLE. THIS IS AN UNTANGIBLE QUALITY. IT STEMS FROM FIRM CONVICTIONS AND HONEST BELIEFS; BELIEF IN DEVINE GUIDANCE, BELIEF IN COUNTRY, AND BELIEF IN THE TEAM OF WHICH ONE IS A PART.

A STRONG AMERICA IS NECESSARY IF OUR ARMED FORCES ARE TO BE STRONG. IN A VERY REAL SENSE OUR ARMED FORCES REFLECT THE WILL OF THE PEOPLE. IF THE PEOPLE ARE APATHETIC AND CONFUSED, THAT SHOWS UP IN OUR ARMED FORCES. IF THE PEOPLE ARE STRONG WILLED AND ENERGETIC -- THE ARMED FORCES WILL REFLECT THESE QUALITIES.

I AM HERE TO ASSURE YOU THAT THE MEN AND WOMEN OF OUR ARMED FORCES ARE DEDICATED TO THE SERIOUS PURPOSE OF PRESERVING OUR NATION. I KNOW THEY HAVE YOUR WHOLEHEARTED SUPPORT.

 


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